American writers from the government section of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP), charged by MacArthur with writing a draft constitution, took note of suggestions for the document contributed by Japanese people and groups. They also chose not to limit themselves to creating an American replica for Japan. They looked within but also beyond the U.S. Constitution. Many on the American writing committee embraced the expansive human rights of the New Deal. These ideals were not reflected in the U.S. Constitution, nor necessarily embraced by conservatives within American occupation personnel. Beate Sirota Gordon, a young and idealistic member of the committee, has recorded her search through Japanese libraries for sample constitutions from other nations that might provide models for a progressive Japanese document. In its original form, Gordon’s human rights section for the Japanese constitution articulated rights far more progressive than anything in the U.S. Constitution.
For the past three decades, globalization, human rights, and democracy have been marching forward together, haltingly, not always and everywhere in step, but in a way that unmistakably shows they are interconnected. By encouraging globalization in less developed countries, we not only help to raise growth rates and incomes, promote higher standards, and feed, clothe, and house the poor; we also spread political and civil freedoms.
The worldwide spread of human rights norms is often seen as a moral consequence of economic globalization.
Human rights is nothing other than a politics, one that must reconcile moral ends to concrete situations and must be prepared to make painful compromises not only between meand and ends, but between ends themselves.
But politics is not just about deliberation. Human rights language is also there to remind us that there are some abuses that are genuinely intolerable, and some excuses for these abuses that are insupportable.
(1999 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State, February 25, 2000)
Today, all the talk is of globalization. But far too often, both its advocates and its critics have portrayed globalization as an exclusively economic and technological phenomenon. In fact, in the new millennium, there are at least three universal "languages:" money, the Internet, and democracy and human rights. An overlooked "third globalization"--the rise of transnational human rights networks of both public and private actors--has helped develop what may over time become an international civil society capable of working with governments, international institutions, and multinational corporations to promote both democracy and the standards embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
In Davos recently, President Clinton noted that "Since globalization is about more than economics, our interdependence requires us to find ways to meet the challenges of advancing our values." In 1999 the United States continued to meet that challenge. As a leader in promoting democracy and human rights around the world, the United States played an essential and catalyzing role in the process of creating transnational human rights networks.
The poor, in fact, are vulnerable due to lack of education (often they are illiterate), lack of information, and other economic, cultural and social deprivations. A person’s utility preferences are malleable and shaped by his or her background and experience, especially if he or she is disadvantaged. It is not appropriate to assume that the poor’s expressed preferences are truly in their self-interest. We need to look beyond their expressed preferences and focus on people’s capabilities to choose the lives they have reason to value.
It is interesting that so many words have been spent over the years on something which is ultimately not manageable: knowledge in people's brains. In the corporate world, act of shaing knowledge can be converted to monetary value and people who share may receive raise or promotion. But that is not because the corporations are managing the knowledge residing in employees' brains. They are simply encouraging that they communicate more and better.
The trouble with fashionable words and phrases is that, like all fashions, they quickly become unfashionable. Used in speaking, they are harmless enough; as the fashions change we can adjust our vocabularies. But writing is persistent; manuals, reports, plans, and proposals can have an effective life of several years. Moreover, the documents in an organization's files tend to be copied and reused in later documents. A brief description of a project can reappear in an organization's proposals and plans for decades.
The second problem with fashionable language is that, as people become eager to use it, they are less precise about its meaning. For example, when everyone was interested in quality in the mid-1990s, the word was used so often in so many contexts that business scholars began publishing papers containing elaborate conceptual frameworks — just to explicate the numerous meanings of the term. The meaning became so imprecise and diffused that, to a large extent, any sentence containing quality could be interpreted in a half dozen ways, all defensible; in effect, it was no longer possible to do business research with quality as an understandable variable. In the past five years, globalization has begun to manifest the same pattern, meaning very different things to different supporters and opponents.
Business people are especially susceptible to management fads and the vocabularies associated with them. Management consultants often give new names to old constructs — structured analysis becomes reengineering, for example — creating the illusion of new knowledge. In messages for international readers, however, these fashionable expressions can be treacherous. Unless these terms are defined in a glossary, international documents should be free of buzzwords — overworked words, or any words uniquely associated with a particular management theory or popular management consultant. Among the hundreds of risky terms are • reengineer (or re-engineer) • quality, total quality • empowerment • prioritize • impact, impactful • downsize, self-actualization • globalization • synergy • enterprise solution • information architecture • knowledge management • downside, upside
Knowledge involves the mental processes of comprehension, understanding and learning that go on in the mind and only in the mind, however much they involve interaction with the world outside the mind, and interaction with others. Whenever we wish to express what we know, we can only do so by uttering messages of one kind or another - oral, written, graphic, gestural or even through 'body language'. Such messages do not carry 'knowledge', they constitute 'information', which a knowing mind may assimilate, understand, comprehend and incorporate into its own knowledge structures. These structures are not identical for the person uttering the message and the receiver, because each person's knowledge structures are 'biographically determined'. Therefore, the knowledge built from the messages can never be exactly the same as the knowledge base from which the messages were uttered.
In common usage, these two terms are frequently used as synonyms, but the task of the academic researcher is to clarify the use of terms so that the field of investigation has a clearly defined vocabulary. The present confusion over 'knowledge management' illustrates this need perfectly.
The consequence of this analysis is that everything outside the mind that can be manipulated in any way, can be defined as 'data', if it consists of simple facts, or as 'information', if the data are embedded in a context of relevance to the recipient. Collections of messages, composed in various ways, may be considered as 'information resources' of various kinds - collections of papers in a journal, e-mail messages in an electronic 'folder', manuscript letters in an archive, or whatever. Generally, these are regarded as 'information resources'. Thus, data and information may be managed, and information resources may be managed, but knowledge (i.e., what we know) can never be managed, except by the individual knower and, even then, only imperfectly. The fact is that we often do not know what we know: that we know something may only emerge when we need to employ the knowledge to accomplish something. Much of what we have learnt is apparently forgotten, but can emerge unexpectedly when needed, or even when not needed. In other words we seem to have very little control over 'what we know'.
I walk through an arched marble doorway and into one of the loveliest rooms I've seen anywhere. Designed to look like a Renaissance Library, the John Griswold White Reading Room offers sweeping views of Lake Erie and downtown Cleveland, as well as a dazzling abundance of venerable books and objects. A lawyer and scholar who died in 1928, White was one of the library's greatest benefactors and his prodigious collections fill this room.
Romantic love became distincr from amour passion, although at the same time had residues of it. Amour passion was never a generic social force in the way in which romantic love has been from somewhere in the late eighteenth century up to relatively recent times. Together with other social changes, the spread of notions of romantic love was deeply involved with momentous transitions affecting marriage as well as other contexts of personal life. Romantic love presumes some degree of self-interrogation. How do I feel about the other? How does the other feel about me? Are our feelings 'profound' enought to support a long-term involvement? Unlike amour passion, which uproots erratically, romantic love detaches individuals from wider social circumstances in a different way. It provides for a long term life trajectory, oriented to an anticipated yet malleable future; and it creates a 'shared history' that helps separate out the marital relationship from other aspects of family organisation and give it a special primacy.
From its earliest origins, romantic love raises the question of intimacy. It is incompatible with lust, and with earthy sexuality, not so much because the loved one is idealised - although this is part of the story - but because it presumes a psychic communication, a meeting of souls which is reparative in character. The other, by being who he or she is, answers a lack which the individual does not even necessarily recognise - until the love relation is initiated. And this lack is directly to do with self-identity: in some sense, the flawed individual is made whole.
I do not know how I am going to vote on this bill yet because I have a notion that a bill of this weight, I ought to read it. What I want to talk about now is my deep disappointment in the procedure. We now, for the second time, are debating on the floor a bill of very profound significance for the constitutional structure and security of our country. In neither case has any member been allowed to offer a single amendment.
At no point in the debate in this very profound set of issues have we had a procedure whereby the most democratic institution in our government, the House of Representatives, engages in democracy.
Who decided that to defend democracy we had to degrade it? This bill, ironically, which has been given all of these high-flying acronyms, it is the PATRIOT bill, it is the U.S.A. bill, it is the 'stand up and sing the Star Spangled Banner' bill, has been debated in the most undemocratic way possible, and it is not worthy of this institution. The House has not been well served by a procedure which degrades democracy in the name of defending it.
What good is reading the bill if it’s a thousand pages and you don’t have two days and two lawyers to find out what it means after you read the bill?
We are now debating at this hour of night, with only two copies of the bill that we are being asked to vote on available to members on this side of the aisle. I am hoping on the other side of the aisle they at least have two copies.
"Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001"
107th CONGRESS, 1st Session, H. R. 3162, IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES, October 24, 2001, Received
AN ACT - To deter and punish terrorist acts in the United States and around the world, to enhance law enforcement investigatory tools, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, ...
Any investigative or law enforcement officer, or attorney for the Government, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, or evidence derived therefrom, may disclose such contents to any other Federal law enforcement, intelligence, protective, immigration, national defense, or national security official to the extent that such contents include foreign intelligence or counterintelligence, or foreign intelligence information, to assist the official who is to receive that information in the performance of his official duties.
We never do have time. No time to listen, no time to read, no time to think things through, no time for spell-checking, no time to respond to daily e-mails, no time for the family, sometimes not even time for a vacation.
(A lot of things we do fail for one reason. You overestimate your strength and you underestimate your weaknesses. But there is one way to avoid this, use time to your advantage. Those who master the balance between sense of urgency and patience will be successful in their new ventures.)
(The Future)Whatever the future may be, it will be digital. The present is a time of transition, when printed and digital modes of communication coexist and new technology soon becomes obsolete. Already we are witnessing the disappearance of familiar objects: the typewriter, now consigned to antique shops; the postcard, a curiosity; the handwritten letter, beyond the capacity of most young people, who cannot write in cursive script; the daily newspaper, extinct in many cities; the local bookshop, replaced by chains, which themselves are threatened by Internet distributors like Amazon. And the library? It can look like the most archaic institution of all.
Yet its past bodes well for its future, because libraries were never warehouses of books. They have always been and always will be centers of learning. Their central position in the world of learning makes them ideally suited to mediate between the printed and the digital modes of communication. Books, too, can accommodate both modes. Whether printed on paper or stored in servers, they embody knowledge, and their authority derives from a great deal more than the technology that went into them.
(Preservation) Bits become degraded over time. Documents may get lost in cyberspace, owing to the obsolescence of the medium in which they are encoded. Hardware and software become extinct at a distressing rate. Unless the vexatious problem of digital preservation is solved, all texts “born digital” belong to an endangered species. The obsession with developing new media has inhibited efforts to preserve the old. We have lost 80% of all silent films and 50% of all films made before World War II. Nothing preserves texts better than ink imbedded in paper, especially paper manufactured before the 19th century, except texts written in parchment or engraved in stone. The best preservation system ever invented was the old-fashioned, pre-modern book.
The book is not dead. In fact, the world is producing more books than ever before. According to Bowker, 700,000 new titles were published worldwide in 1998; 859,000 in 2003; and 976,000 in 2007. Despite the Great Recession of 2009 that has hit the publishing industry so hard, one million new books will soon be produced each year.
(Bowker is projecting that U.S. title output in 2008 decreased by 3.2%, with 275,232 new titles and editions, down from the 284,370 that were published in 2007.)
We all agree in lamenting that there are so many houses — even some of considerable social position — where you will not find a good atlas, a good dictionary, or a good cyclopaedia of reference. What is still more lamentable, in a good many more houses where these books are, they are never referred to or opened. That is a very discreditable fact, because I defy anybody to take up a single copy of the Times newspaper and not come upon something in it, upon which, if their interest in the affairs of the day were active, intelligent, and alert as it ought to be, they would consult an atlas, dictionary, or cyclopædia of reference.
The reference librarian should keep a record of the questions most frequently asked, specifying places in which answers to the same can be found. It is well, if time does not allow for analytic work to be inserted in the card catalog, to keep this record near the information desk, writing the questions on cards with reference where found, and filing alphabetically. Much caluable time is consumed in looking up the same question over and over again. Lists of all references on such subjects as Christmas, Arbor Day, Thanks-giving Day, Washington's Farewell address, lives of noted personages, Washington, Lincoln, Lowell, Holmes, etc., should be always at hand covering every available reference in the library on the subject.
Two sovereign wealth fund in Singapore, Government of Singapore Investment Corporation (GIC) and Temasek Holdings (TH) , recruited librarians to teach information management skills to investment bankers and analysts. After some years, all investment bankers and analysts were armed with information skills, and naturally, all librarians were fired. The librarians went back to the libraries happily with money and experience.
In 1820 the first card catalog appeared in a library in London. In the 1870s, the decimal classification system for library index cards was introduced in the library in Massachusetts. The typewriter had been invented a few years earlier, and ultimately the card and the keys met and married. Then, for many years, the library index card and its attendant cabinets would serve as the Google of their day.
In 1990s, card cabinets in libraries were dismantled and the cards discarded . There simply wasn’t enough room anymore to capture all our knowledge on a 3" x 5" descendant of papyrus. The once ubiquitous little cards, whose origins are so closely linked to cataloging knowledge, teetered on the brink of extinction. Electronic systems live a perilously finite existence. Better operating systems, application software and search engines will come along and the current hero will be banished, forgotten, trashed.
Get your digit out, the English are fond of saying—meaning, get cracking. Get your digit out—and your pen—and jot a note on an index card. It still has a place in the digital world.
Democratic self-government does not work because ordinary people have not learned how to run the ship of state. They are not familiar enough with such things as economics, military strategy, conditions in other countries, or the confusing intricacies of law and ethics. They are also not inclined to acquire such knowledge. The effort and self-discipline required for serious study is not something most people enjoy. In their ignorance they tend to vote for politicians who beguile them with appearances and nebulous talk, and they inevitably find themselves at the mercy of administrations and conditions over which they have no control because they do not understand what is happening around them. They are guided by unreliable emotions more than by careful analysis, and they are lured into adventurous wars and victimized by costly defeats that could have been entirely avoided.
We, the Japanese people, acting through our duly elected representatives in the National Diet, determined that we shall secure for ourselves and our posterity the fruits of peaceful cooperation with all nations and the blessings of liberty throughout this land, and resolved that never again shall we be visited with the horrors of war through the action of government, do proclaim that sovereign power resides with the people and do firmly establish this Constitution. Government is a sacred trust of the people, the authority for which is derived from the people, the powers of which are exercised by the representatives of the people, and the benefits of which are enjoyed by the people. This is a universal principle of mankind upon which this Constitution is founded. We reject and revoke all constitutions, laws, ordinances, and rescripts in conflict herewith.
We, the Japanese people, desire peace for all time and are deeply conscious of the high ideals controlling human relationship, and we have determined to preserve our security and existence, trusting in the justice and faith of the peace-loving peoples of the world. We desire to occupy an honored place in an international society striving for the preservation of peace, and the banishment of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance for all time from the earth. We recognize that all peoples of the world have the right to live in the peace, free from fear and want.
We believe that no nation is responsible to itself alone, but that laws of political morality are universal; and that obedience to such laws is incumbent upon all nations who would sustain their own sovereignty and justify their sovereign relationship with other nations.
We, the Japanese people, pledge our national honor to accomplish these high ideals and purposes with all our resources.
Article 11 - The people shall not be prevented from enjoying any of the fundamental human rights. These fundamental human rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be conferred upon the people of this and future generations as eternal and inviolate rights.
Article 12 - The freedoms and rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be maintained by the constant endeavor of the people, who shall refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights and shall always be responsible for utilizing them for the public welfare.
Article 13 - All of the people shall be respected as individuals. Their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness shall, to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare, be the supreme consideration in legislation and in other governmental affairs.
Article 16 - Every person shall have the right of peaceful petition for the redress of damage, for the removal of public officials, for the enactment, repeal or amendment of laws, ordinances or regulations and for other matters; nor shall any person be in any way discriminated against for sponsoring such a petition.
Article 24 - 1. Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.
2. With regard to choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domicile, divorce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the family, laws shall be enacted from the standpoint of individual dignity and the essential equality of the sexes.
Article 33 - No person shall be apprehended except upon warrant issued by a competent judicial officer which specifies the offense with which the person is charged, unless he is apprehended, the offense being committed.
Article 34 - No person shall be arrested or detained without being at once informed of the charges against him or without the immediate privilege of counsel; nor shall he be detained without adequate cause; and upon demand of any person such cause must be immediately shown in open court in his presence and the presence of his counsel.
Article 35 - 1. The right of all persons to be secure in their homes, papers and effects against entries, searches and seizures shall not be impaired except upon warrant issued for adequate cause and particularly describing the place to be searched and things to be seized, or except as provided by Article 33.
2. Each search or seizure shall be made upon separate warrant issued by a competent judical officer.
Article 36 - The infliction of torture by any public officer and cruel punishments are absolutely forbidden.
A la tête de leurs volumineux travaux, on lit une Déclaration des Droits de l'HOMME et du Citoyen. S'ils avaient dit les Droits du citoyen, ou de l'homme- citoyen, je les comprendrais encore; mais j'avoue que l'HOMME, distingué du citoyen, est un être que je ne connais pas du tout. J'ai vu dans le cours de ma vie des Français, des Anglais, des Italiens, des Allemands, des Russes, etc. : j'ai même appris, dans un livre célèbre, qu'on peut être Persan. Mais je n'ai jamais vu l'homme, s'il a des droits, je m'en moque; jamais nous ne devrons vivre ensemble : qu'ils aillent les exercer dans les espaces imaginaires.
BELIEVE ME, SIR, those who attempt to level, never equalize. In all societies, consisting of various descriptions of citizens, some description must be uppermost. The levelers, therefore, only change and pervert the natural order of things; they load the edifice of society by setting up in the air what the solidity of the structure requires to be on the ground. The association of tailors and carpenters, of which the republic (of Paris, for instance) is composed, cannot be equal to the situation into which by the worst of usurpations- an usurpation on the prerogatives of nature- you attempt to force them.
Human rights have been defined as the relationship between human beings and power. In my view therefore, the history of human rights started a very long time ago, at the time one God pronounced Commandments, in the number of ten, by which his people were to abide.
The news these days is chock full of libraries without books. Maybe there's a conspiracy by the press to make "traditional" libraries seem antiquated and horrible so that they decline alone with traditional media. Or maybe they're just having slow news days. Either way, if the library of the future has no books, then the future is now, whatever that hoary cliche is supposed to mean.
There was a primitive chaos to it all — the hybrid scent of tobacco and mimeograph ink, and the sounds of ringing phones, of typewriters zipping along until the warning bell pinged near the end of a line, and of the clack-clack-clack of the return handle as the carriage reset.
Knowledge management is not just about creating a virtual platform for employees to post what they know and what they do (a plot by IT consulting companies to generate more revenue) but it also involves getting the right incentives and human resource management to create a culture where people are willing to share what they know.
Under agreements that we have negotiated just over the past few years and will come into effect by the end of the decade, we are bringing the number of our nuclear warheads down from over 20,000 when I became chairman four years ago to just over 5000. And today I can declare my hope and declare it from the bottom of my heart that we will eventually see the time when that number of nuclear weapons is down to zero and the world is a much better place.
Next we have information. Information is data that's been collected and organized. It is a reference tool. Something we turn to when trying to create something else.
The third level is knowledge. This is information that we have digested and now understand. Organized as knowledge, the information we have collected is given a context.
The fourth level is wisdom. Wisdom is the proper use of knowledge. To be more precise, wisdom is knowledge that has been applied in a way that takes into account all its pertinent relationships and that is consistent with universal laws.
The human mind is being challenged more and more aggressively with mounting floods of data that threaten to overwhelm it entirely—a kind of information overload in which it does not know data but only knows where to find data.